“Truncating the y-axis
While a standard y-axis (beginning at or closer to zero) is less clear and aesthetic, truncating (or beginning at a number above the minimum of the data range) allows Fox News to any marginal change in data appear as greater than it actually is.
“Numbers that don’t add up
I’m not sure whether this one is intentional or not, but it crops up in several places and I think is a unique approach to leading information, at least I couldn’t find a reference in the literature. Basically the idea is to produce percentages that don’t add to one, allowing multiple choices to have closer percentages than they probably should:
“Changing the units of comparison
When two things are likely to be very similar, one approach to leading information is to present variables in different units. Here is an example where total spending for 2010-2013 is compared to deficits in 2008. This can also be viewed as an example of not labeling the axes.
“Changing the magnitude of units at different x-values
Here is a plot where the changes in magnitude at high x-values are higher than changes in magnitude at lower x-values. Again, I think this is actually a novel graphical technique for leading readers in one direction.
To really see the difference, compare to the graph with common changes in magnitude at all x-values.
“Changing trends by sub-sampling x values (also misleading chart titles)
Here is a graph that shows unemployment rates over time and the corresponding chart with the x-axis appropriately laid out.